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This file is about the copyright on Sage and all included components.

Sage is a compilation both of original Python, C, C++, and Cython code,
and of existing free mathematics-related software.  All standard
components of sage (those included in sage-*.tar) are licensed under a
free open source license as defined at http://www.opensource.org/.

The whole Sage software distribution is licensed under the General
Public License, version 3 (no other versions!).

All Sage documentation is licensed under Creative Commons 3.0 BY-SA
License.

Some of the code available in *optional* Sage packages (not included
in sage-*.tar) are licensed under more restrictive conditions.

* ORIGINAL SAGE LIBRARY CODE:
  All original Sage code is distributed under the terms of the
  GNU General Public License, either version 2 of the License, or
  (at your option) any later version.

     This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     General Public License for more details.

The full text of the GPL is available below in this file. Details of
the licenses of the components of Sage are included below as well.

* LICENSES OF INCLUDED SOFTWARE:

SOFTWARE                    LICENSE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
arb                         GPLv2+
atlas                       Modified BSD
boehm_gc                    MIT-like license (see below)
backports_ssl_match_hostname  Python License
boost_cropped               Boost Software License (see below)
bzip2                       BSD-ish (see below)
cddlib                      GPLv2+
cephes                      "may be used freely" (see below)
certifi                     ISC
cliquer                     GPLv2+
conway_polynomials          None (database)
cvxopt                      GPLv2+
cython                      Apache, version 2.0
dateutil                    Simplified BSD
docutils                    Modified BSD
ecl                         LGPLv2+
eclib                       GPLv2+
ecm                         GPLv3+
elliptic_curves             None (database)
extcode                     GPLv2+
fflas_ffpack                LGPLv2.1+
flint                       GPLv2+
flintqs                     GPLv2+
freetype                    FreeType License (similar to BSD; see below)
gap                         GPLv2+
gcc                         GPLv3+
gd                          Custom (BSD-ish)
genus2reduction             GPLv2+
gfan                        GPLv2 or GPLv3
gf2x                        GPLv2+
givaro                      CeCILL-B (BSD-ish)
glpk                        GPLv3+
graphs                      None (database)
gsl                         GPLv3+
iconv                       GPLv3+
iml                         COPYING is GPLv2, source files state modified BSD
ipython                     Modified BSD
jinja2                      Modified BSD
jmol                        LGPLv2.1+
jsonschema                  MIT License
lcalc                       GPLv2+
libfplll                    LGPLv2.1+
libgap                      GPLv3+
libpng                      Custom, very similar to zlib
linbox                      LGPLv2.1+
lrcalc                      GPLv2+
m4ri                        GPLv2+
m4rie                       GPLv2+
markupsafe                  Simplified BSD
mathjax                     Apache License 2.0
matplotlib                  Matplotlib License (BSD compatible, see below)
maxima                      See below
mistune                     Modified BSD
mpc                         LGPLv3+
mpfi                        COPYING is GPLv2, source files state LGPLv2.1+
mpfr                        LGPLv3+
mpir                        LGPLv3+
mpmath                      Modified BSD
networkx                    Modified BSD
ntl                         GPLv2+
numpy                       Modified BSD
openblas                    Modified BSD
palp                        GPLv3
pari                        GPLv2+
patch                       GPLv2+
pexpect                     Python License
pillow                      Apache License 2.0
pip                         MIT License
pkgconf                     ISC License (equivalent to Simplified BSD)
pkgconfig                   MIT License
planarity                   Modified BSD
polybori                    GPLv2+
polytopes_db                None (database)
ppl                         GPLv3+
pycrypto                    Public domain & Python License
pygments                    Modified BSD
pynac                       GPLv2+
pyparsing                   MIT License
python                      Python License (see below)
R                           GPLv2+
ratpoints                   GPLv2+
readline                    GPLv3+
rpy                         GPLv2+
rubiks/dietz                GPL, any version
rubiks/dik                  MIT License
rubiks/reid                 GPLv2+
sage                        GPLv2+
sage_root                   GPLv2+
sage_scripts                GPLv2+
sagenb                      GPLv3
sagetex                     GPLv2+ (CC BY-SA 3.0 for included documentation)
scipy                       Modified BSD
scons                       MIT License
setuptools                  Python License
singular                    GPLv2 or GPLv3 (see below)
six                         MIT License
sphinx                      Modified BSD
sqlite                      Public Domain (see below)
symmetrica                  MIT-like License (see below)
sympow                      Modified BSD
sympy                       Modified BSD
tachyon                     Modified BSD
termcap                     GPLv2+
threejs                     MIT License
tornado                     Apache License
zlib                        Custom (Modified BSD)
zn_poly                     GPLv2 or GPLv3 (no later versions, see below)

CONTACT INFO:
     William Stein; wstein@gmail.com;
     http://www.sagemath.org

=========================================================================

                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                       Version 3, 29 June 2007

 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

                            Preamble

  The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for
software and other kinds of works.

  The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
to take away your freedom to share and change the works.  By contrast,
the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free
software for all its users.  We, the Free Software Foundation, use the
GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to
any other work released this way by its authors.  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
these rights or asking you to surrender the rights.  Therefore, you have
certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if
you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
freedoms that you received.  You must make sure that they, too, receive
or can get the source code.  And you must show them these terms so they
know their rights.

  Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
(1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

  For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
that there is no warranty for this free software.  For both users' and
authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as
changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to
authors of previous versions.

  Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer
can do so.  This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of
protecting users' freedom to change the software.  The systematic
pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to
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stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions
of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.

  Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents.
States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of
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avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could
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patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

                       TERMS AND CONDITIONS

  0. Definitions.

  "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

  "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of
works, such as semiconductor masks.

  "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
License.  Each licensee is addressed as "you".  "Licensees" and
"recipients" may be individuals or organizations.

  To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work
in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an
exact copy.  The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the
earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.

  A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based
on the Program.

  To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without
permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for
infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a
computer or modifying a private copy.  Propagation includes copying,
distribution (with or without modification), making available to the
public, and in some countries other activities as well.

  To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
parties to make or receive copies.  Mere interaction with a user through
a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

  An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices"
to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible
feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2)
tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the
extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the
work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License.  If
the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a
menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

  1. Source Code.

  The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work
for making modifications to it.  "Object code" means any non-source
form of a work.

  A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official
standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of
interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that
is widely used among developers working in that language.

  The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other
than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of
packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major
Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that
Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an
implementation is available to the public in source code form.  A
"Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component
(kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system
(if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to
produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.

  The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all
the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable
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  The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that
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  2. Basic Permissions.

  All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
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  7. Additional Terms.

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material under section 10.

  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

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run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance.  However,
nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
modify any covered work.  These actions infringe copyright if you do
not accept this License.  Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
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  10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

  Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
propagate that work, subject to this License.  You are not responsible
for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

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organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
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  11. Patents.

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  In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
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  If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
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consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
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actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
country that you have reason to believe are valid.

  If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
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you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
work and works based on it.

  A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
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  Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

  If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
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section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
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  14. Revised Versions of this License.

  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
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address new problems or concerns.

  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
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by the Free Software Foundation.

  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
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to choose that version for the Program.

  Later license versions may give you additional or different
permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
later version.

  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

  THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  16. Limitation of Liability.

  IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGES.

  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

  If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.

================================================================================

boehm_gc:

Copyright (c) 1988, 1989 Hans-J. Boehm, Alan J. Demers
Copyright (c) 1991-1996 by Xerox Corporation.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1996-1999 by Silicon Graphics.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1999-2011 by Hewlett-Packard Development Company.

The file linux_threads.c is also
Copyright (c) 1998 by Fergus Henderson.  All rights reserved.

The files Makefile.am, and configure.in are
Copyright (c) 2001 by Red Hat Inc. All rights reserved.

Several files supporting GNU-style builds are copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, and carry a different license from that given
below.  The files included in the libatomic_ops distribution (included
here) use either the license below, or a similar MIT-style license,
or, for some files not actually used by the garbage-collector library, the
GPL.

THIS MATERIAL IS PROVIDED AS IS, WITH ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED.  ANY USE IS AT YOUR OWN RISK.

Permission is hereby granted to use or copy this program
for any purpose,  provided the above notices are retained on all copies.
Permission to modify the code and to distribute modified code is granted,
provided the above notices are retained, and a notice that the code was
modified is included with the above copyright notice.

A few of the files needed to use the GNU-style build procedure come with
slightly different licenses, though they are all similar in spirit.  A few
are GPL'ed, but with an exception that should cover all uses in the
collector. (If you are concerned about such things, I recommend you look
at the notice in config.guess or ltmain.sh.)

The atomic_ops library contains some code that is covered by the GNU General
Public License, but is not needed by, nor linked into the collector library.
It is included here only because the atomic_ops distribution is, for
simplicity, included in its entirety.

================================================================================

boost_cropped:
(http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)

Boost Software License - Version 1.0 - August 17th, 2003

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person or organization
obtaining a copy of the software and accompanying documentation covered by
this license (the "Software") to use, reproduce, display, distribute,
execute, and transmit the Software, and to prepare derivative works of the
Software, and to permit third-parties to whom the Software is furnished to
do so, all subject to the following:

The copyright notices in the Software and this entire statement, including
the above license grant, this restriction and the following disclaimer,
must be included in all copies of the Software, in whole or in part, and
all derivative works of the Software, unless such copies or derivative
works are solely in the form of machine-executable object code generated by
a source language processor.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS OR ANYONE DISTRIBUTING THE SOFTWARE BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

================================================================================

bzip2:
(http://www.bzip.org/)
This program, "bzip2", the associated library "libbzip2", and all
documentation, are copyright (C) 1996-2010 Julian R Seward.  All
rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

2. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must
   not claim that you wrote the original software.  If you use this
   software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product
   documentation would be appreciated but is not required.

3. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must
   not be misrepresented as being the original software.

4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote
   products derived from this software without specific prior written
   permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

================================================================================

cephes:

   Some software in this archive may be from the book _Methods and
   Programs for Mathematical Functions_ (Prentice-Hall, 1989) or
   from the Cephes Mathematical Library, a commercial product. In
   either event, it is copyrighted by the author.  What you see here
   may be used freely but it comes with no support or guarantee.

================================================================================

cython:
(http://www.cython.org/)

The original Pyrex code as of 2006-04 is licensed under the following
license: "Copyright stuff: Pyrex is free of restrictions. You may use,
redistribute, modify and distribute modified versions."

------------------

Cython, which derives from Pyrex, is licensed under the Apache 2.0
Software License.  More precisely, all modifications and new code
made to go from Pyrex to Cython are so licensed.

See LICENSE.txt in the cython spkg for more details.

================================================================================

docutils:

:Author: David Goodger
:Contact: goodger@python.org
:Date: $Date: 2009-10-09 09:17:59 +0200 (Fre, 09 Okt 2009) $
:Web site: http://docutils.sourceforge.net/

Most of the files included in this project have been placed in the
public domain, and therefore have no license requirements and no
restrictions on copying or usage. See COPYING.txt (in the docutils
spkg) for more details.

================================================================================

freetype:
(http://www.freetype.org/license.html)

FreeType comes with two licenses from which you can choose the one which fits
your needs best.

 * The FreeType License (FTL) is the most commonly used one. It is a BSD-style
   license with a credit clause and thus compatible with the GNU Public License
   (GPL) version 3, but not with the GPL version 2.

 * The GNU General Public License (GPL), version 2. Use it for all projects
   which use the GPLv2 also, or which need a license compatible to the GPLv2.

================================================================================

gd -- "The web site programmer's dynamic graphics generation tool":
(http://www.boutell.com/gd/)

Permission has been granted to copy, distribute and modify gd in
any context without fee, including a commercial application,
provided that this notice is present in user-accessible supporting
documentation.

This does not affect your ownership of the derived work itself, and
the intent is to assure proper credit for the authors of gd, not to
interfere with your productive use of gd. If you have questions,
ask. "Derived works" includes all programs that utilize the
library. Credit must be given in user-accessible documentation.

This software is provided "AS IS." The copyright holders disclaim
all warranties, either express or implied, including but not
limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, with respect to this code and accompanying
documentation.

================================================================================

genus2reduction:
(http://www.math.u-bordeaux.fr/~liu/G2R/)
Copyright Qing LIU. See PARI for the license terms.

================================================================================

gfan:

From: Anders Nedergaard Jensen <jensen@imf.au.dk>
To: Jeroen Demeyer <jdemeyer@cage.ugent.be>
Subject: Re: gfan licensing under GPLv2+

Dear Jeroen Demeyer,
Yes, I am willing to change the distribution terms to
GPL, "version 2, or any later version".
Do I need to make an updated release, or will this email suffice?
Best regards,
Anders

================================================================================

ipython:
(http://ipython.org/ipython-doc/stable/about/license_and_copyright.html)

Copyright (c) 2011, IPython Development Team

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of the IPython Development Team nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this
software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS
IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

================================================================================

matplotlib:
(from http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/users/license.html)

Matplotlib only uses BSD compatible code, and its license is based on
the PSF license. See the Open Source Initiative licenses page for
details on individual licenses. Non-BSD compatible licenses (eg LGPL)
are acceptable in matplotlib toolkits. For a discussion of the
motivations behind the licencing choice, see Licenses.

================================================================================

maxima:
(from http://maxima.sourceforge.net/authorization-letter.html)

Dear Dr. Schelter:

RE: DOE-MACSYMA

This is in reply to your request of September 17, 1998, requesting a license
to prepare and distribute derivative works from the copy of DOE-MACSYMA
software obtained from the NESC. The ESTSC assumed the DOE Centralized
Software Management Facility responsibility in January 1991. The following
statement of the Department of Energy's (DOE) position is provided as the
ESTSC response to your request.

?It has been the DOE practice (where the case permits) to encourage private
companies or individuals to modify, enhance, or make derivative works of
unrestricted software sponsored or supported by DOE for the purpose of
commercialization or distribution of such modifications, enhancements, and/or
derivative works. Accordingly, William F. Schelter may consider he has a
nonexclusive, world-wide, royalty-free license to make derivative works
(modifications or enhancements) from the copy of DOE-MACSYMA obtained from
NESC, and to copy, license and/or distribute those derivative works for use,
modification and enhancement, and further sublicensing and distribution.

Distribution of such derivative works is subject to the U.S. Export
Administration Regulations (Title 15 CFR 768-799), which implements the Export
Administration Act of 1979, as amended, and/or the International Traffic in
Arms Regulation, of 12-6-84, (Title 22 CFR 121-130), which implements the Arms
Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2728) and may require license for export.?

We have enclosed a current list of the countries which are considered
sensitive and require approval through DOE Headquarters. Should you have
requests from such countries, please contact the ESTSC for approval. If you
intend to make your derivative work(s) available under the GPL (gnu public
license) via the Internet, the previous paragraph should be included in the
GPL and should accompany other modifications, enhancements or derivative works
of your program.

The derivative versions of DOE-MACSYMA which you develop for commercialization
purposes may be of interest to DOE organizations which ESTSC supports. We
would appreciate getting copies of such derivatives and would adhere to the
dissemination limitation markings which you define.

If you have questions or comments, please call me at 423/576-2606.

================================================================================

NTL:
(http://www.shoup.net/ntl/)
A Library for Doing Number Theory
Copyright (C) 1996-2005  Victor Shoup

The most recent version of NTL is available at http://www.shoup.net

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

This entire copyright notice should be placed in an appropriately
conspicuous place accompanying all distributions of software that
make use of NTL.

The above terms apply to all of the software modules distributed with NTL,
i.e., all source files in either the ntl-xxx.tar.gz or WinNTL-xxx.zip
distributions.  In general, the individual files do not contain
copyright notices.

Note that the quad_float package is derived from the doubledouble package,
originally developed by Keith Briggs, and also licensed unger the GNU GPL.
The files quad_float.c and quad_float.h contain more detailed copyright
notices.

Note that the traditional long integer package used by NTL, lip.c, is derived
from---and represents an extensive modification of---
a package originally developed and copyrighted by Arjen Lenstra,
who has agreed to renounce any copyright claims on the particular
version of the long integer package appearing in NTL, so that the
this package now is covered by the GNU GPL as well.

Note that the alternative long integer package used by NTL is GMP,
which is written by Torbjorn Granlund <tege@swox.com>.
GMP is licensed under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License.

Note that NTL makes use of the RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message
Digest Algorithm.

RSA MD5 Message Digest Algorithm License:
Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
rights reserved.

License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
or this function.

License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
mentioning or referencing the derived work.

RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty of any kind.

These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
documentation and/or software.

================================================================================

pil:

The Python Imaging Library is

Copyright (c) 1997-2006 by Secret Labs AB
Copyright (c) 1995-2006 by Fredrik Lundh

By obtaining, using, and/or copying this software and/or its
associated documentation, you agree that you have read, understood,
and will comply with the following terms and conditions:

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby
granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all
copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice
appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Secret Labs
AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
distribution of the software without specific, written prior
permission.

SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO
THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
FITNESS.  IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT
OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

================================================================================

pycrypto:

Previously, the copyright and/or licensing status of the Python
Cryptography Toolkit ("PyCrypto") had been somewhat ambiguous.  The
original intention of Andrew M. Kuchling and other contributors has
been to dedicate PyCrypto to the public domain, but that intention was
not necessarily made clear in the original disclaimer (see
LEGAL/copy/LICENSE.orig).

Additionally, some files within PyCrypto had specified their own
licenses that differed from the PyCrypto license itself.  For example,
the original RIPEMD.c module simply had a copyright statement and
warranty disclaimer, without clearly specifying any license terms.
(An updated version on the author's website came with a license that
contained a GPL-incompatible advertising clause.)

To rectify this situation for PyCrypto 2.1, the following steps have
been taken:

 1. Obtaining explicit permission from the original contributors to
    dedicate their contributions to the public domain if they have not
    already done so.  (See the "LEGAL/copy/stmts" directory for
    contributors' statements.)

 2. Replacing some modules with clearly-licensed code from other
    sources (e.g. the DES and DES3 modules were replaced with new ones
    based on Tom St. Denis's public-domain LibTomCrypt library.)

 3. Replacing some modules with code written from scratch (e.g. the
    RIPEMD and Blowfish modules were re-implemented from their
    respective algorithm specifications without reference to the old
    implementations).

 4. Removing some modules altogether without replacing them.

To the best of our knowledge, with the exceptions noted below or
within the files themselves, the files that constitute PyCrypto are in
the public domain.  Most are distributed with the following notice:

  The contents of this file are dedicated to the public domain.  To
  the extent that dedication to the public domain is not available,
  everyone is granted a worldwide, perpetual, royalty-free,
  non-exclusive license to exercise all rights associated with the
  contents of this file for any purpose whatsoever.
  No rights are reserved.

  THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
  EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
  MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
  NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
  BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN
  ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
  CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
  SOFTWARE.

Exception:

 - Portions of HMAC.py and setup.py are derived from Python 2.2, and
   are therefore Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003 Python Software
   Foundation (All Rights Reserved).  They are licensed by the PSF
   under the terms of the Python 2.2 license.  (See the file
   LEGAL/copy/LICENSE.python-2.2 for details.)

EXPORT RESTRICTIONS:

Note that the export or re-export of cryptographic software and/or
source code may be subject to regulation in your jurisdiction.

================================================================================

python:

PYTHON SOFTWARE FOUNDATION LICENSE VERSION 2
--------------------------------------------

1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between the Python Software Foundation
("PSF"), and the Individual or Organization ("Licensee") accessing and
otherwise using this software ("Python") in source or binary form and
its associated documentation.

2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License Agreement, PSF
hereby grants Licensee a nonexclusive, royalty-free, world-wide
license to reproduce, analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly,
prepare derivative works, distribute, and otherwise use Python
alone or in any derivative version, provided, however, that PSF's
License Agreement and PSF's notice of copyright, i.e., "Copyright (c)
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Python Software Foundation; All Rights
Reserved" are retained in Python alone or in any derivative version
prepared by Licensee.

3. In the event Licensee prepares a derivative work that is based on
or incorporates Python or any part thereof, and wants to make
the derivative work available to others as provided herein, then
Licensee hereby agrees to include in any such work a brief summary of
the changes made to Python.

4. PSF is making Python available to Licensee on an "AS IS"
basis.  PSF MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED.  BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PSF MAKES NO AND
DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF PYTHON WILL NOT
INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

5. PSF SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF PYTHON
FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS
A RESULT OF MODIFYING, DISTRIBUTING, OR OTHERWISE USING PYTHON,
OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF.

6. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material
breach of its terms and conditions.

7. Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any
relationship of agency, partnership, or joint venture between PSF and
Licensee.  This License Agreement does not grant permission to use PSF
trademarks or trade name in a trademark sense to endorse or promote
products or services of Licensee, or any third party.

8. By copying, installing or otherwise using Python, Licensee
agrees to be bound by the terms and conditions of this License
Agreement.

================================================================================

singular:
                        SINGULAR version 3-1-5

                     University of Kaiserslautern

      Department of Mathematics and  Centre for Computer Algebra

           Authors: G.-M. Greuel, G. Pfister, H. Schoenemann

                        Copyright (C) 1986-2012



                               *NOTICE*

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation ( version 2 or version 3 of the License ).

Some single files have a copyright given within the file:
Singular/ndbm.* (BSD), kernel/htmlhelp.h (LGPL 2.1+)

The following software used with SINGULAR have their own copyright: the
omalloc library, the readline library, the Gnu Multiple Precision
Library (GMP), NTL: A Library for doing Number Theory (NTL), the Multi
Protocol library (MP), the Singular-Factory library, the
Singular-libfac library, surfex, and, for the Windows distributions the
Cygwin DLL and the Cygwin tools (Cygwin), and the XEmacs editor
(XEmacs).

Their copyrights and licenses can be found in the accompanying files
COPYING which are distributed along with these packages.  (Since
version 3-0-3 of SINGULAR, all parts have GPL or LGPL as (one of) their
licences.)

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
General Public License for more details.

================================================================================

sqlite:

SQLite Copyright

SQLite is in the Public Domain

All of the deliverable code in SQLite has been dedicated to the public
domain by the authors. All code authors, and representatives of the
companies they work for, have signed affidavits dedicating their
contributions to the public domain and originals of those signed
affidavits are stored in a firesafe at the main offices of
Hwaci. Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or
distribute the original SQLite code, either in source code form or as
a compiled binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and
by any means.

The previous paragraph applies to the deliverable code in SQLite -
those parts of the SQLite library that you actually bundle and ship
with a larger application. Portions of the documentation and some code
used as part of the build process might fall under other licenses. The
details here are unclear. We do not worry about the licensing of the
documentation and build code so much because none of these things are
part of the core deliverable SQLite library.

All of the deliverable code in SQLite has been written from
scratch. No code has been taken from other projects or from the open
internet. Every line of code can be traced back to its original
author, and all of those authors have public domain dedications on
file. So the SQLite code base is clean and is uncontaminated with
licensed code from other projects.

================================================================================

symmetrica:

Copyright (c) 1987-2010 , symmetrica (at) symmetrica.de

Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHORS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES
WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

================================================================================

sympow:
(http://www.maths.bris.ac.uk/~mamjw/)
copyright Mark Watkins.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
 * Redistribution of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
 this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * Redistribution in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * If redistribution is done as a part of a compilation that has a more
 restrictive license (such as the GPL), then the fact that SYMPOW has
 a less restrictive license must be made clear to the recipient.
 For example, a line like (include bracketed text if SYMPOW is modified):
 "This compilation includes [a modification of] SYMPOW whose [original]
  code has a less-restrictive license than the entire compilation."
 should appear in a suitable place in the COPYING and/or LICENSE file.

[followed by the BSD disclaimer]

================================================================================

zlib:
GPL compatible according to
  http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/index_html#GPLCompatibleLicenses

Copyright (C) 1995-2004 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler

  This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied
  warranty.  In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages
  arising from the use of this software.

  Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
  including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
  freely, subject to the following restrictions:

  1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not
     claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software
     in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
     appreciated but is not required.
  2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be
     misrepresented as being the original software.
  3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.

  Jean-loup Gailly jloup@gzip.org
  Mark Adler madler@alumni.caltech.edu


================================================================================

zn_poly: a library for polynomial arithmetic (version 0.9)

Copyright (C) 2007, 2008, David Harvey

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) version 3 of the License.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License,
along with this program (see gpl-2.0.txt and gpl-3.0.txt). If not,
see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Licensing notes:

(1)
zn_poly is NOT released under the "GPL v2 or later" or "GPL v3 or later".
Both v2 and v3 are fine, but for now I am excluding later versions. If you
need zn_poly under a different license, ask me and I'll consider it.

(2)
zn_poly incorporates small amounts of code from other projects:

   (2a)
   The file "wide_arith.h" includes some assembly macros from the file
   "longlong.h" in GMP 4.2.1; see http://gmplib.org/. The copyright to this
   code is held by the Free Software Foundation, and it was released under
   "LGPL v2.1 or later".

   (2b)
   The file "wide_arith.h" also includes assembly macros from the file
   "SPMM_ASM.h" in NTL 5.4.1; see http://www.shoup.net/ntl/. The copyright
   to this code is held by Victor Shoup, and it was released under "GPL v2 or
   later".

   (2c)
   The filer "profiler.h" contains x86 cycle counting code from the file
   "profiler.h" in FLINT 1.0; see http://www.flintlib.org/. The copyright
   to this code is held by William Hart, and it was released under "GPL v2 or
   later".

===============================================================================